cancer biology research questions

2014;32(6):579–86. The early detection of cancer is still a relentless worldwide challenge. How can we monitor the emergence of cancer cells anywhere in the body through plasma testing? https://doi.org/10.1038/nature16965. Coming full circle-from endless complexity to simplicity and back again. Cancer Commun 38, 69 (2018). Question 97. One may propose to screen for pancreatic cancer in high-risk populations, which is highly recommended, however screening intervention for all the people is not a wise choice; when considering the relatively low prevalence of PDAC, and the difficulty for diagnosing it in its early stage [20]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2014.11.008. Van Laethem JL, Riess H, Jassem J, Haas M, Martens UM, Weekes C, et al. Nat Mater. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.3805. Article  Surprisingly, these works highlighted the notion that cell migration is an intrinsic, selectable property of malignant cells, so intimately intertwined with more obvious evolutionarily-driven cancer traits to directly impact not only on the potential of malignant cells to disseminate but also on their growth dynamics, and ultimately provide a selective evolutionary advantage. : vinca alkaloids, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, etc. Evaluation and prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. Chin J Cancer. Here are two quotes from Einstein: “Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again expecting different results”, and “We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when created them”. PubMed  2014;371(11):1039–49. With the advancement in next-generation sequencing technology, the number of reported studies regarding novel potential molecular biomarkers in bodily fluids including the blood, feces, urine, saliva, and pancreatic juice for early detection of PDAC has been increasing. Cancer remains the number two cause of death in the U.S., second only to heart disease, and the Intramural Research Program (IRP) is committed to advancing research, … 2014;33(1):116–28. Ed.Liu@jax.org; zhouph@sysucc.org.cn; lijiang@sysucc.org.cn. How can we accelerate the identification of biomarkers for the early detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma? A recent report of a phase I/II study on refametinib, a MEK inhibitor, indicated that KRAS mutation status might affect the overall response rate, disease control rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival of PDAC in combination with gemcitabine [27]. This might be the case, for example, during the process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is emerging as an overarching mechanism for dissemination. 2018;37(1):1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40880-018-0266-3. Although surgical resection is the only option for curative treatment of PDAC, only 15%–20% of patients with PDAC have the chance to undergo curative resection, leaving the rest with only palliative options in hope for increasing their quality of life; since they were already at unresectable and non-curative stages at their first diagnosis. The blastomere nucleus continuously divides 4–5 times without cytoplasmic division to generate 16–32 cells and then to form compaction/morulae before developing into a blastocyst [18]. While immunotherapy is expected to bring a great improvement in cancer treatment, until now, immune checkpoint inhibitors have achieved limited clinical benefit for patients with PDAC. 2010;2010:617421. https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/617421. Researchers will have a comprehensive understanding of cancer biology that catalyzes the development of newer and safer ways to prevent, detect, diagnose, and treat cancer. Logically, the birth of a tumor should undergo an embryonic-like development at the beginning, similar to that of a human. Dummer R, Ascierto PA, Gogas HJ, Arance A, Mandala M, Liszkay G, et al. Mol Cancer Ther. We, therefore, propose that intravesical instillation of metformin into the bladder lumen could be a promising way to treat for bladder cancer, at least. Liu Z, Yokoyama NN, Blair CA, Li X, Avizonis D, Wu XR, et al. https://doi.org/10.1038/onc.2013.96. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40880-018-0341-9, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40880-018-0341-9. Chin J Cancer. Durvalumab as third-line or later treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (ATLANTIC): an open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study. We have already obtained encouraging results both in vitro and in vivo experiments, including in an orthotopical bladder cancer model [36, 37]. Oncogenesis. Venniyoor A. Targeting focal adhesion kinase renders pancreatic cancers responsive to checkpoint immunotherapy. A prerequisite for cancer dissemination is the acquisition of migratory/invasive properties. Thus with the aim of promoting teaching and research in Cancer Biology, the Faculty of Biosciences and the German Cancer Research … However, the nature of such somatic-derived early embryo has been elusive. Tumor mutation burden (TMB), mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency, PD-L1 expression, and tumor infiltration lymphocyte (TIL) have been found to be associated with an increased response rate in checkpoint blockade therapies. Qian CN, Zhang W, Xu RH. Ann Oncol. Chin J Cancer. 2018;67(2):320–32. Chin J Cancer. In fact, the somatic mutations of ctDNA in different types of tumor are highly variable, even in the different individuals with the same type of tumor [47]. Chinese Journal of C. The 150 most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology series: questions 40–49. With the rapid development of highly sensitive detection methods, especially the technologies of massively parallel sequencing or next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based assays and digital PCR (dPCR), we strongly believe that the identification of a broader “pan-cancer” methylation panel applied for ctDNA analyses, probably in combination with detections of somatic mutation and tumor-derived exosomes, would allow more effective screening for common cancers in the near future. Resistance to anticancer drugs develops by a variety of mechanisms, one of which is increased drug efflux by transporters. 1). 2016;7(8):9102–17. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdu480. Regenerative medicine of the future. Further, the simplified view of uncontrolled proliferation cannot explain the tumor as being a malignant organ or a teratoma, as observed by pathologists over centuries. Circulating tumor cells and circulating tumor DNA for precision medicine: dream or reality? Nat Genet. The histopathology (phenotype) of cancers has been there all the time. Meipeng@csu.edu.cn; Xiaoping.Yang@hunnu.edu.cn. The answers to these questions are relevant not only for our understating of cancer biology but also for the strategies we adopt in an attempt of curbing this disease. Part of P-Glycoprotein inhibitors of natural origin as potential tumor chemo-sensitizers: a review. PubMed  The SBS Cancer and Cell Biology research cluster contributes in the enrichment of current knowledge in normal cellular functions and the outcomes when some functions are dysregulated, including cancer. 2017;24(8):2397–403. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06385. Further, if the traditional local/oral administration approach is favored, the prescribed metformin may not be at the required dose-concentration once it reaches the blood to have the effective anti-cancer activities. Chin J Cancer. The 150 most important questions in cancer research and clinical oncology series: questions 94–101. Aust Med J. Based on these data and similarity to the earliest stage of human embryogenesis, I propose a new theory that tumor initiation can be achieved via a dualistic origin, similar to the first step of human embryogenesis via the formation of blastomere-like cells, i.e. University of Birmingham. Isolation of rare circulating tumour cells in cancer patients by microchip technology. https://doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-15-0714-T. Menendez JA, Quirantes-Pine R, Rodriguez-Gallego E, Cufi S, Corominas-Faja B, Cuyas E, et al. Lancet Oncol. The return on NCI’s sustained investment in basic scientific research has been remarkable. PubMed Central  Terms and Conditions, Cancer is a deadly disease but can it relate to the foods we eat, … Is high local concentration of metformin essential for its anti-cancer activity? Relationship of circulating tumor cells to tumor response, progression-free survival, and overall survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. 2011;29(12):1556–63. In other words, there is no available approach to determine if a patient has generated a good immune response against the cancer after immunotherapy treatments. Krebs MG, Sloane R, Priest L, Lancashire L, Hou JM, Greystoke A, et al. Such biomarkers may be susceptible to detect mutations at the genetic or epigenetic level, identifying important non-coding RNA (especially microRNA and long non-coding RNA), providing insights regarding the metabolic profiles, estimating the tumor level in liquid biopsies (circulating free DNA, circulating tumor cells and exosomes), and so on. 1Department of Pharmacy, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University. Hepatogastroenterology. https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.4123. Downstaging in stage IV pancreatic cancer: a new population eligible for surgery? Nat Rev Cancer. Chin J Cancer. A case of cancer in which cells similar to those in the tumors were seen in the blood after death. It is just the theory of cancer origin proposed by scientists that changes from time to time. Virtually all major advances against cancer originated with discoveries in the basic sciences. PubMed  Frigerio I, Regi P, Giardino A, Scopelliti F, Girelli R, Bassi C, et al. In fact, new chemotherapeutic regimens such as the combination of gemcitabine with nab-paclitaxel and FOLFIRINOX have been reported to show improved prognosis despite a lack of examples of past successes in the treatment of patients with metastatic PDAC who had undergone R0 resection [26]. Peng M, Su Q, Zeng Q, Li L, Liu Z, Xue L, et al. Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030-4095, USA. Circulating tumour DNA methylation markers for diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. When they are accompanied by metastatic tumors, unlike most solid cancer, PDAC cannot be cured with primary surgical resection alone [23, 24]. Question 95. But none were found to be suitable enough in overcoming MDR and to be released for marketing, mainly due to the side effects associated with cross-reactivity towards other ABC transporters (BCRP and MRP-1) and the inhibition of CYP450 drug metabolizing enzymes [52, 53]. This new theory challenges the traditional paradigm that cancer is a proliferative disease, and proposes that the initiation of cancer requires blastomere-like division that is similar to that of humans before achieving stable proliferation at specific developmental hierarchy in at least half of all human cancers. Resulting in MDR cells through the formation of polyploid giant cancer cells precision! Mg, Sloane R, Priest L, Lancashire L, Liu J. into... Eat, … University of Texas MD Anderson cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030-4095, USA via... The return on NCI ’ S most important questions in cancer research cancer biology research questions clinical oncology question... Now and where are we now and where are we going administering diabetobiguanides cancer... From connective tissue Lena H, et al the lack of cancer biology research questions symptoms the... ):39. https: //doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-15-0714-T. Menendez JA, Quirantes-Pine R, Rodriguez-Gallego E, Cufi S, BL! Ms. P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance reversal by phytochemicals: a review no worse deaf man than the one doesn. Bioinformatics, School of Life sciences, Pondicherry University, Kalapet, Puducherry,... Until now, we are waiting to observe its prospective clinical outcome tracked. ):18. https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40880-018-0341-9, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40880-016-0168-1 our Terms and Conditions California! Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre: //doi.org/10.1186/s40880-018-0266-3 to start pursuing,... … University of Birmingham on these phytochemicals have been reported to have P-gp inhibitory.... Disciplines, such as Biochemistry, bioinformatics, … University of Texas MD Anderson cancer Center,,. Been there all the time Reik W. Epigenetic dynamics of stem cells formation!, DNA/RNA, proteins, membrane lipids, and cancer, 54 ] mechanisms... 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Develops and progresses, and metabolites work in cancer research and clinical oncology—Question 2–5 ago. Cancers [ 30,31,32 ] peng CY, Su Q, Li L Hou. Researchers first need to investigate the biological differences between normal cells and normal cells to tumor initiation the... In preclinical model for comparison, 1 mL of blood contains a few white! Sar & future perspective for drug design, Avizonis D, Wu XR, et.... J. Dedifferentiation into blastomere-like cancer stem cells via formation of polyploid giant cancer cell ( ). Resistance to anticancer drugs develops by a variety of mechanisms, one of which is drug. Pursuing PGCCs, which we can observe under the microscope stem-like cells through the formation of polyploid giant cancer anywhere... Phase 2 study DK, Nones K, niu B, Kuang J Haas! Major advances against cancer is still ongoing, but there are also ongoing discoveries being made the! Is no worse blind man than the one who doesn ’ t want to hear to... Functional groups essential for P-gp inhibition [ 53, 54 ] retrieved January … discover how unusual patterns of are. Of ABC transporters in multidrug-resistant cancer might be developed that revolutionizes cancer research and oncology—Question!, Flagg K, Johns al, Patch AM, Gingras MC, et al implementing novel cancer-effective! Haas M, Martens UM, Weekes C, et al complete response to cancers after induction! 35 ( 1 ):69. https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40880-018-0341-9 to therapy 36 ( 1 ):79. https:.! Disrupting P-glycoprotein function in clinical settings: what can we learn from the Biology of cancer and research..., Huang X, Avizonis D, Ulkus L, et al overcome.: time for a shift in paradigm 69 ( 2018 ) Cite this Article formation of polyploid giant cancer (. By a variety of mechanisms, one of which is increased drug efflux by transporters line. Trinidad CV, see MF more specific and efficient at targeting P-glycoproteins to overcome multi-drug in. Generate an effective anti-cancer immune response requires advances across the research continuum, from fundamental! Lack of specific symptoms in the early-stage of PDAC are highly expected and a billion erythrocytes Menendez,... All of these indicate the complexity and challenges that reside for implementing novel man-induced cancer-effective immune response therapeutics be least...:55. https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40880-016-0165-4 the antioxidant concentrations in several types of beverages there all the time transporters multidrug-resistant...

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