marco polo quien fue

[nb 2], In 1851, a three-masted clipper built in Saint John, New Brunswick also took his name; the Marco Polo was the first ship to sail around the world in under six months. [c]​[18]​, Es posible que, como era habitual en Génova, la «prisión» consistiera en estar confinado en casa de alguna familia, pero en cualquier caso Marco pasó los pocos meses de su encierro dictando a Rustichello un detallado relato de sus viajes por las entonces desconocidas regiones de Extremo Oriente. Emmerick, R.E. [58], An authoritative version of Marco Polo's book does not and cannot exist, for the early manuscripts differ significantly, and the reconstruction of the original text is a matter of textual criticism. Se saludaba con gozosa bienvenida el nacimiento de un varón, primogénito del aventurero messer Niccolo, perdido allá en tierras extrañas. A Venetian in the Realm of Khubilai Khan. El manuscrito original, probablemente escrito en francés antiguo o francoitaliano, no ha sobrevivido, pero el libro,[19]​ Il milione (‘El millón’, más conocido en español como Los viajes de Marco Polo o Libro de las maravillas) tuvo rápido éxito y fue traducido pronto a muchas lenguas europeas. Aunque el subsiguiente Imperio latino fue pronto reconquistado por el mismo imperio, Venecia siguió controlando varias islas y ciudades, y siendo una de las principales potencias mercantiles. [60][61], Polo related his memoirs orally to Rustichello da Pisa while both were prisoners of the Genova Republic. [cita requerida]. Murió en 1324 y lo enterraron en la iglesia de San Lorenzo de su ciudad. Marco Polo se destaca en la historia por haber sido un navegante, mercader y estar entre los primeros europeos que surcaron el mar hasta llegar a China. Gracias a ello llegó a conocer las vastas regiones de China y los numerosos logros de la civilización china, muchos de los cuales eran más avanzados que los contemporáneos europeos. "The Million", deriving from Polo's nickname "Milione". [38] However, around 1291, he finally granted permission, entrusting the Polos with his last duty: accompany the Mongol princess Kököchin, who was to become the consort of Arghun Khan, in Persia (see Narrative section). Boyle, J.A. There is a legend about Marco Polo importing pasta from China; however, it is actually a popular misconception,[140] originating with the Macaroni Journal, published by a food industry association with the goal of promoting the use of pasta in the United States. [50][51], Pietro d'Abano philosopher, doctor and astrologer based in Padua, reports having spoken with Marco Polo about what he had observed in the vault of the sky during his travels. Peter D'Abano kept the drawing in his volume "Conciliator Differentiarum, quæ inter Philosophos et Medicos Versantur". Hay que tener en cuenta que para aquella época, Marco Polo y su familia no eran los únicos que habían viajado a Asia. Larner John, Marco Polo and the discovery of the world, Yale University Press, 1999. In fact, pasta had already been invented in Italy long time before Marco Polo's travels to Asia. They became worried about returning home safely, believing that if Kublai died, his enemies might turn against them because of their close involvement with the ruler. [146], The frequent flyer programme of Hong Kong flag carrier Cathay Pacific is known as the "Marco Polo Club". For example, the opening introduction in The Book of Marvels to "emperors and kings, dukes and marquises" was lifted straight out of an Arthurian romance Rustichello had written several years earlier, and the account of the second meeting between Polo and Kublai Khan at the latter's court is almost the same as that of the arrival of Tristan at the court of King Arthur at Camelot in that same book. Polo had therefore completed the story by providing information not found in either source. [96][133] Vogel noted that no other Western, Arab, or Persian sources have given such accurate and unique details about the currencies of China, for example, the shape and size of the paper, the use of seals, the various denominations of paper money as well as variations in currency usage in different regions of China, such as the use of cowry shells in Yunnan, details supported by archaeological evidence and Chinese sources compiled long after the Polos had left China. [102] It has also been noted by other scholars that many of the things not mentioned by Marco Polo such as tea and chopsticks were not mentioned by other travellers as well. [98], Sceptics have long wondered whether Marco Polo wrote his book based on hearsay, with some pointing to omissions about noteworthy practices and structures of China as well as the lack of details on some places in his book. [19], Since Dominican fathers had among their missions that of evangelizing foreign peoples (cf. These conjectures seem to be supported by the fact that in addition to the imperial dignitary Saman (the one who had arrested the official named "Boluo"), the documents mention his brother, Xiangwei. [80] The Polos left the wedding party after reaching Hormuz and travelled overland to the port of Trebizond on the Black Sea, the present-day Trabzon. [106], In addition to Haw, a number of other scholars have argued in favour of the established view that Polo was in China in response to Wood's book. But did Marco Polo experience the things he wrote about? [39] He also said that city wall of Khanbaliq had twelve gates when it had only eleven. Marco Polo's travels may have had some influence on the development of European cartography, ultimately leading to the European voyages of exploration a century later. Marco Polo nasceu em 1254, [nota 1] [7] na República de Veneza. (Venècia, 15 de setembre de 1254 – Venècia, 8 de gener de 1324) va ser un explorador i mercader, el més famós dels viatgers de la ruta de la Seda.Els seus viatges queden recollits a Il Milione.. Niccolò, el pare de Marco Polo i el seu oncle Matteo ja havien realitzat viatges a Àsia abans que Marco hi anés amb ells. De acuerdo a sus crónicas, se convirtió en gobernador y administrador de una ciudad china, fue emisario del papa y sirvió a Kublai Kancomo consejero. [127] Archaeologists have also pointed out that Polo may have mixed up the details from the two attempted invasions of Japan by Kublai Khan in 1274 and 1281. Es así como se despierta el interés por los mongoles en Europa. Viaggio ai confini del Medioevo", Collezione Le Scie. A preference for natural materials, high-quality workmanship and special details characterize the individual style of this international brand with Scandinavian roots, in keeping with the philosophy of its founders: The freedom to be yourself. Aunque los Polo no fueron en forma alguna los primeros europeos en llegar a China por tierra (considérese por ejemplo a Juan de Plano Carpini así como la única delegación romana que partió a la China con objeto de establecer relaciones diplomáticas entre Roma y China), gracias al libro de Marco, su viaje fue el primero en conocerse ampliamente y el mejor documentado hasta entonces. In his writings, the Dominican brother Jacopo d'Acqui explains why his contemporaries were sceptical about the content of the book. Marco Polo fue un mercader veneciano, nacido en 1254 y conocido por ser, junto a su padre y su tío, uno de los primeros exploradores europeos en viajar hasta China a través de la Ruta de la Seda.Marco Polo recogió sus experiencias en un diario, hecho que ha permitido que su nombre perdure a lo largo de los siglos. On Prince Jingim's wedding day, Kublai receives disturbing news about the ambitions of his cousin, while Marco navigates a delicate mission. [117], If this identification is correct, there is a record about Marco Polo in Chinese sources. [22][23], In 1168, his great-uncle, Marco Polo, borrowed money and commanded a ship in Constantinople. [13]​ Después de la toma de Constantinopla de 1204 Venecia poseía su propio barrio en la ciudad, además de controlar el puerto, y muchos venecianos se instalaron allí, entre ellos los Polo. The Dominican father Francesco Pipino was the author of a translation into Latin, Iter Marci Pauli Veneti in 1302, just a few years after Marco's return to Venice. [10]​, Marco Polo nació en 1254 en una familia de mercaderes. Los viajes de Marco Polo Su obra Los viajes de Marco Polo es probablemente el libro de viaje más famoso e influyente de toda la historia. Los intercambios comerciales se encontraban casi siempre mediatizados por persas y árabes. [54] The church was entitled by law to a portion of his estate; he approved of this and ordered that a further sum be paid to the convent of San Lorenzo, the place where he wished to be buried. Also in reply to Wood, Jørgen Jensen recalled the meeting of Marco Polo and Pietro d'Abano in the late 13th century. The accusation was that Boluo had walked on the same side of the road as a female courtesan, in contravention of the order for men and women to walk on opposite sides of the road inside the city. The diplomatic communications between Pope Innocent IV and Pope Gregory X with the Mongols[88] were probably another reason for this endorsement. Cuando una embajada del rey de Persia le solicita a Kublai Kan una princesa para el rey, los Polo la acompañan, decidiendo regresar a Venecia. [138] The 1453 Fra Mauro map was said by Giovanni Battista Ramusio (disputed by historian/cartographer Piero Falchetta, in whose work the quote appears) to have been partially based on the one brought from Cathay by Marco Polo: That fine illuminated world map on parchment, which can still be seen in a large cabinet alongside the choir of their monastery [the Camaldolese monastery of San Michele di Murano] was by one of the brothers of the monastery, who took great delight in the study of cosmography, diligently drawn and copied from a most beautiful and very old nautical map and a world map that had been brought from Cathay by the most honourable Messer Marco Polo and his father. "[136], Other lesser-known European explorers had already travelled to China, such as Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, but Polo's book meant that his journey was the first to be widely known. De acuerdo a las narraciones de los viajes de Marco Polo, escritos por Rustichello de Piza, el comerciante veneciano habría servido por 23 años al entonces emperador de Mongolia y China, Kublai Kan, llegando incluso a ser gobernador de la ciudad de … With people you love, texts and social media don’t give you the whole picture and calls are hard to schedule. [28], Marco knew four languages, and the family had accumulated a great deal of knowledge and experience that was useful to Kublai. [14]​ Una de las rutas comerciales que de allí partían era la del mar Negro y en ella se especializaron, hasta el punto de que disponían de una casa en el puerto de Soldaia, el principal emporio comercial italiano de Crimea.[15]​. ? En 1295 Venecia estaba en guerra con su rival, la República de Génova. The two-year voyage was a perilous one—of the six hundred people (not including the crew) in the convoy only eighteen had survived (including all three Polos). The show premiered on Netflix on December 12, 2014. The Polos managed to fight and escape through a nearby town, but many members of the caravan were killed or enslaved. Marco Polo nació probablemente en Venecia, aunque no hay ninguna prueba de su lugar de nacimiento, alrededor de 1254 la CE. [89] In fact, a Mongol delegate was solemny baptised at the Second Council of Lyon. MARC O’POLO stands for high-class, contemporary premium modern casual wear. Andrea, Marco's grandfather, lived in Venice in "contrada San Felice", he had three sons: Marco "the older", Matteo e Niccolò (Marco's father). Quizá resultó capturado en algún otro enfrentamiento de menor importancia en torno a esas fechas, pero en cualquier caso debió ser liberado tras la ratificación del tratado de paz entre Génova y Venecia en julio de 1299. Marco pronto se ganó el favor de Kublai Kan, quien le hizo su consejero y emisario durante diecisiete años. [94][100] This is taken further by Dr. Frances Wood who claimed in her 1995 book Did Marco Polo Go to China? El mismo aventurero, Marco, se casó con Donata Badoer, también perteneciente a una familia noble, aunque perdió su posición al casarse con el célebre veneciano. Marco Polo is an American drama streaming television series inspired by Marco Polo's early years in the court of Kublai Khan, the Khagan of the Mongol Empire and the founder of the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). that at best Polo never went farther east than Persia (modern Iran), and that there is nothing in The Book of Marvels about China that could not be obtained via reading Persian books. El relato de sus viajes, inspiró, entre otros, a Cristóbal Colón que poseía un ejemplar del libro cuidadosamente anotado. [52], In 1305 he is mentioned in a Venetian document among local sea captains regarding the payment of taxes. Antes de Marco Polo, varios misioneros, como Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, viajaron como embajadores a Oriente, aunque sin conseguir resultados concretos. Existen discrepancias entre los historiadores sobre el hecho de que Marco Polo haya realizado efectivamente los viajes que se le atribuyen, en particular aquellos … Polo had at times refuted the 'marvellous' fables and legends given in other European accounts, and despite some exaggerations and errors, Polo's accounts have relatively few of the descriptions of irrational marvels. [75] Three and a half years after leaving Venice, when Marco was about 21 years old, the Polos were welcomed by Kublai into his palace. [21]​ En este caso la versión de Rustichello sería la traducción al francés de un texto escrito originariamente por Marco en veneciano, un manuscrito que también se habría perdido cuya versión conservada más próxima sería la traducción al latín realizada entre 1310 y 1317 por el dominico Francesco Pipino. 1. Su padre, Nicolás Polo, y su tío Mateo Polo, miembros de una ilustre familia de mercaderes de la próspera República Veneciana, ambicionaban comerciar con el pueblo tártaro de Oriente; ambos hermanos emprendieron conjuntamente una expedición hacia Oriente en el año 1255. El mismo Cristóbal Colón tenía una copia, con anotaciones manuscritas suyas en los márgenes, que todavía se conserva. The British historian David Morgan thought that Polo had likely exaggerated and lied about his status in China,[115] while Ronald Latham believed that such exaggerations were embellishments by his ghostwriter Rustichello da Pisa.[84]. [91] Doubts have also been raised in later centuries about Marco Polo's narrative of his travels in China, for example for his failure to mention the Great Wall of China, and in particular the difficulties in identifying many of the place names he used[92] (the great majority, however, have since been identified). Asiatische Studien 51.3 (1997): 719-728", "The Travels of Marco Polo – World Digital Library", "The most noble and famous travels of Marco Polo, together with the travels of Nicoláo de' Conti", "Frammento del "Milione" di Marco Polo – RIALFrI", "Apologia de'padri domenicani missionarii della China, o pvro risposta al libro del P. Le Tellier ... intitolato "difesa de nuovi Cristiani" ...", "Galleria de'Sommi Pontefici, patriarchi, arcivescovi, e vescovi dell'ordine de'Predicatori. No figura en ninguna fuente histórica china o mongol. A Critical Appraisal by I. de Rachewiltz", "Jensen, Jørgen. Let Marco Polo help you make the most of your trip. [36], They continued overland until they arrived at Kublai Khan's place in Shangdu, China (then known as Cathay). Her book can only be described as deceptive, both in relation to the author and to the public at large. [131] "If Marco was a liar," Haw writes, "then he must have been an implausibly meticulous one. "[132], In 2012, the University of Tübingen Sinologist and historian Hans Ulrich Vogel released a detailed analysis of Polo's description of currencies, salt production and revenues, and argued that the evidence supports his presence in China because he included details which he could not have otherwise known. Young readers are presented with the facts in this entertaining, highly readable Quien fue . During the trip, however, they received news that after 33 months of vacation, finally, the Conclave had elected the new Pope and that he was exactly the archdeacon of Acre. The travels of Marco Polo are fictionalised in a number works, such as: This article is about the trader and explorer. Marco Polo fue un comerciante veneciano al que se le atribuye haber viajado a China y vivir más de 20 años allí, pero ¿lo hizo realmente? [99] His failure to note the presence of the Great Wall of China was first raised in the middle of the seventeenth century, and in the middle of the eighteenth century, it was suggested that he might have never reached China. London and New York: Routledge, 2006. O continente era uma incógnita para os habitantes da Europa, sendo que a pouca informação que tinham provinha de duas fontes: as histórias contadas por comerciantes que tinha feito viagem para o Oriente Médio e para a … [20]​, Existe una versión alternativa y minoritaria que considera la colaboración de Marco Polo y Rustichello en la prisión de Génova como una ficción. ", Since the siege was over in 1273, before Marco Polo had arrived in China for the first time, the claim cannot be true[115][124] The Mongol army that besieged Xiangyang did have foreign military engineers, but they were mentioned in Chinese sources as being from Baghdad and had Arabic names. Polo wrote of five-masted ships, when archaeological excavations found that the ships, in fact, had only three masts. [54] He also set free Peter, a Tartar servant, who may have accompanied him from Asia,[55] and to whom Polo bequeathed 100 lire of Venetian denari. Though he was not the first European to reach China (see Europeans in Medieval China), Marco Polo was the first to explore some parts of Asia and to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience. Questions are posted that, in the majority of cases, have already been answered satisfactorily ... her attempt is unprofessional; she is poorly equipped in the basic tools of the trade, i.e., adequate linguistic competence and research methodology ... and her major arguments cannot withstand close scrutiny. pàg.) [67] The popular translation published by Penguin Books in 1958 by R. E. Latham works several texts together to make a readable whole. The party sailed to the port of Singapore,[77] travelled north to Sumatra,[78] and sailed west to the Point Pedro port of Jaffna under Savakanmaindan and to Pandyan of Tamilakkam. [54] He also wrote off multiple debts including 300 lire that his sister-in-law owed him, and others for the convent of San Giovanni, San Paolo of the Order of Preachers, and a cleric named Friar Benvenuto. [79] Eventually Polo crossed the Arabian Sea to Hormuz. Marco Polo faleceu em Veneza, Itália, no dia 8 de janeiro de 1324. "[114], Some scholars believe that Marco Polo exaggerated his importance in China. On their arrival there, Messer Nicolas found that his wife was dead and that she had left behind her a son of fifteen years of age, whose name was Marco". Marco Polo fue un mercader veneciano, nacido en 1254 y conocido por ser, junto a su padre y su tío, uno de los primeros exploradores europeos en viajar hasta China a través de la Ruta de la Seda. Rustichello wrote Devisement du Monde in Franco-Venetian language, which was the language of culture widespread in northern Italy between the subalpine belt and the lower Po between the 13th and 15th centuries. ", Le Moyen Age, vol. [73] The long sede vacante between the death of Pope Clement IV in 1268 and the election of his successor delayed the Polos in fulfilling Kublai's request. Marco Polo recogió sus experiencias en un diario, hecho que ha permitido que su nombre perdure a lo largo de los siglos. Llegaron a Acre, donde se encontraron de nuevo con Tedaldo Visconti, que quizá estaba allí en relación con la cruzada en la que estaba embarcado el futuro rey Eduardo I de Inglaterra. Marco Polo was known for the book, Travels of Marco Polo, where he talked about Asia. Biografía de Marco Polo nació el 15 de Septiembre de 1254 en Venecia y falleció a sus 69 años, el 8 o 9 (no se sabe exactamente) de Enero de 1324, igualmente en Venecia. El primer viaje de la familia Polo-sin Marco- por la Ruta de la … [122], Haw explains how the earliest manuscripts of Polo's accounts provide contradicting information about his role in Yangzhou, with some stating he was just a simple resident, others stating he was a governor, and Ramusio's manuscript claiming he was simply holding that office as a temporary substitute for someone else, yet all the manuscripts concur that he worked as an esteemed emissary for the khan. [13], His first known ancestor was a great uncle, Marco Polo (the older) from Venice, who lent some money and commanded a ship in Costantinople. The Muslim traveller Ibn Battuta, who asked about the wall when he visited China during the Yuan dynasty, could find no one who had either seen it or knew of anyone who had seen it, suggesting that while ruins of the wall constructed in the earlier periods might have existed, they were not significant or noteworthy at that time. With this claim, MARC O’POLO has become one of the … His travels are recorded in The Travels of Marco Polo (also known as Book of the Marvels of the World and Il Milione, c. 1300), a book that described to Europeans the then mysterious culture and inner workings of the Eastern world, including the wealth and great size of the Mongol Empire and China in the Yuan Dynasty, giving their first comprehensive look into China, Persia, India, Japan and other Asian cities and countries.[4]. Astronomers agree that there were no comets sighted in Europe at the end of 1200, but there are records about a comet sighted in China and Indonesia in 1293. Asiatische Studien 51.3 (1997): 719-728, Igor de Rachewiltz, "Marco Polo Went to China,". [26]​ Algunos hechos dudosos, omisiones o inexactitudes que señalan son: Para responder a estos argumentos algunos historiadores han supuesto que el hecho de atribuirse importante participación en algunos acontecimientos pueda responder al deseo de Marco Polo de ocupar algún puesto de relevancia a su vuelta, o también que fueran recursos de Rustichello para incrementar el interés del relato, como podría indicar el hecho de que ambas anécdotas se omitan en manuscritos que podrían corresponder a revisiones del texto hechas con posterioridad por el propio Marco. [116] According to the "Yuanshi" records, Boluo was released at the request of the emperor himself, and was then transferred to the region of Ningxia, in the northeast of present-day China, in the spring of 1275. The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, exploring many places along the Silk Road until they reached Cathay (China). According to David Morgan no Chinese source mentions him as either a friend of the Emperor or as the governor of Yangzhou – indeed no Chinese source mentions Marco Polo at all. His writings about China and the Mongol Empire in "The Travels of Marco Polo" had a significant impact on European beliefs about and behavior toward the East and inspired the travels of Christopher Columbus. Fue en esa situación que en 1298, durante su período en la cárcel, conoció al escritor Rustichello de Pisa, a quien relató sus fabulosos viajes, que fueron el tema del libro conocido en principio como Le divisament du monde, Livre des merveilles du monde, o Il Milione. Another Old French Polo manuscript, dating to around 1350, is held by the National Library of Sweden. Nacido el 15 de Septiembre de 1254, fue un mercader Veneciano al igual que su familia. (1971). [142] According to the newsletter of the National Macaroni Manufacturers Association[142] and food writer Jeffrey Steingarten,[143] the durum wheat was introduced by Arabs from Libya, during their rule over Sicily in the late 9th century, thus predating Marco Polo's travels by about four centuries. By this time, Marco was 21 years old. At the time, there was open discussion of a possible Christian-Mongul alliance with an anti-Islamic function. [100] In this respect, Igor de Rachewiltz recalls that the claim that the three Polo were present at the siege of Xiang-yang is not present in all manuscripts, but Niccolò and Matteo could have made this suggestion. [28] His father later married Floradise Polo (née Trevisan). Cruzaron el Medio Oriente y el desierto de Gobi, siendo testigos de muchos lugares descritos más adelante en su libro La descripción del mundo (que más tarde se conocería como Los viajes de Marco Polo). [104] Marco Polo himself noted (in the Toledo manuscript) the dainty walk of Chinese women who took very short steps. ISBN 0 415 34850 1", "Pierre Racine, " Marco Polo, marchand ou reporter ? 2. Morgan, in Polo's defence, noted that even the princess herself was not mentioned in the Chinese source and that it would have been surprising if Polo had been mentioned by Rashid-al-Din. During the first stages of the journey, they stayed for a few months in Acre and were able to speak with Archdeacon Tedaldo Visconti of Piacenza. [93] Many have questioned whether he had visited the places he mentioned in his itinerary, whether he had appropriated the accounts of his father and uncle or other travelers, and some doubted whether he even reached China, or that if he did, perhaps never went beyond Khanbaliq (Beijing). Biografía de Marco Polo www.librosmaravillosos.com C. Verdejo 6 Preparado por Patricio Barros Capítulo 2 Infancia En el «palazzo» veneciano de los Polo había alegría y dolor, risas y lágrimas. Biblioteca Marciana, the institute that holds Polo's original copy of his testament. However, neither of these accounts mentions Polo or indeed any European as part of the bridal party,[98] and Wood used the lack of mention of Polo in these works as an example of Polo's "retelling of a well-known tale". [33] In 1271, during the rule of Doge Lorenzo Tiepolo, Marco Polo (at seventeen years of age), his father, and his uncle set off for Asia on the series of adventures that Marco later documented in his book. Christopher Columbus was inspired enough by Polo's description of the Far East to want to visit those lands for himself; a copy of the book was among his belongings, with handwritten annotations. [54] He ordered 220 soldi be paid to Giovanni Giustiniani for his work as a notary and his prayers. [92][94], It has, however, been pointed out that Polo's accounts of China are more accurate and detailed than other travellers' accounts of the periods. Quién fue Marco Polo | Vida, Viajes y Curiosidades. [123] Haw also objected to the approach to finding mention of Marco Polo in Chinese texts, contending that contemporaneous Europeans had little regard for using surnames, and a direct Chinese transcription of the name "Marco" ignores the possibility of him taking on a Chinese or even Mongol name that had no bearing or similarity with his Latin name.[122]. A causa de ello, Venecia y otros puertos italianos ganaron importancia y comenzaron una política comercial agresiva para explotar estas rutas comerciales. Whether it’s a weekend away, a big road trip or Hunter and the Sable Weaver 56m. Marco Polo había regresado de sus viajes trayendo consigo grandes riquezas, entre las cuales quizás la más valiosa era la experiencia acumulada a lo largo de veinticuatro años de ausencia. Las pocas noticias que se tenían de lo que estaba más allá eran generalmente confusas y muy mitificadas. Hug 55m. For instance, did Polo exert "political authority" (seignora) in Yangzhou or merely "sojourn" (sejourna) there. [7], Kublai initially refused several times to let the Polos return to Europe, as he appreciated their company and they became useful to him. [85] [47] For such a venture, the Polo family probably invested profits from trading, and even many gemstones they brought from the East. Her conclusion fails to consider all the evidence supporting Marco Polo's credibility. This sentence in The Book of Marvels was interpreted as Marco Polo was "the governor" of the city of "Yangiu" Yangzhou for three years, and later of Hangzhou. As part of this appointment, Marco travelled extensively inside China, living in the emperor's lands for 17 years. This claim has raised some controversy. Constan unos pocos documentos venecianos, pero están completamente ausentes en las fuentes chinas. Rustichello habría escrito la obra para el rey Eduardo I de Inglaterra quien, en su condición de cruzado, tendría gran interés en datos sobre Asia y Oriente. This account of the Orient provided the Europeans with a clear picture of the East's geography and ethnic customs and was the first Western record of porcelain, coal, gunpowder, paper money, and some Asian plants and exotic animals. [90], Since its publication, some have viewed the book with skepticism. freres et lor filz meser Marc. [52] Interestingly, this circumstance does not appear in Polo's book of Travels. [81] It is believed that Polo related his memoirs orally to Rustichello da Pisa while both were prisoners of the Genova Republic. Existe muy escasa información sobre Marco Polo y su familia aparte de la contenida en el libro que relata su viaje. [28] According to The Travels of Marco Polo, they passed through much of Asia, and met with Kublai Khan, a Mongol ruler and founder of the Yuan dynasty. vii, 214 pp. Unlike other video apps, you don’t need to be live. There, an envoy from the Levant invited them to meet Kublai Khan, who had never met Europeans. En los relatos de Marco Polo, también se describen otros aspectos de la vida en Asia Oriental, con mucho detalle: el papel moneda, el Gran Canal, la estructura del ejército mongol, los tigres y el sistema postal imperial. Es de destacar la leyenda del Preste Juan, un mítico rey cristiano que se suponía existía rodeado de infieles en Asia Central. No está claro cómo llegó Marco a la prisión genovesa, donde se relata que en 1298 conoció a «Rusticiaus» de Pisa. [143], The Marco Polo sheep, a subspecies of Ovis ammon, is named after the explorer,[144] who described it during his crossing of Pamir (ancient Mount Imeon) in 1271. [56][58] Due to the Venetian law stating that the day ends at sunset, the exact date of Marco Polo's death cannot be determined, but according to some scholars it was between the sunsets of January 8 and 9, 1324. La mitad de lo que estaba más allá eran generalmente confusas y muy mitificadas de..., marchand ou reporter back oil of the astronomical observations he had made his. Unknown, but likely never marco polo quien fue Venetian provinces, nor returned to their families in Venice returning! Que un hombre, aun dotado de una portentosa fantasía, imaginara todo aquello were appointed by as. Más lento que hoy, y muy mitificadas sources, Saman died shortly after the incident, while navigates! 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